Peat bogs are the largest wetlands on the planet. The Southern Hemisphere is home to 5% of the world’s peatlands and most of them are found in Patagonia. In this document you will find the answers to how peat bogs were formed, and what are the ecosystem roles they fulfill. In Chile today, they face multiple threats, such as peat mining and Sphagnum Magellanicum moss extraction, among many others. For this reason, it is that legislation and regulations that govern peatlands are presented, given the important contradiction that is evident in it, which promotes instruments for their protection and conservation, but extraction and drainage actions are still permissible.